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Fixed Orifice

Hydraulic orifice with constant cross-sectional area




The Fixed Orifice block models a sharp-edged constant-area orifice, flow rate through which is proportional to the pressure differential across the orifice. The flow rate is determined according to the following equations:


qFlow rate
pPressure differential
pA, pBGauge pressures at the block terminals
CDFlow discharge coefficient
AOrifice passage area
DHOrifice hydraulic diameter
ρFluid density
νFluid kinematic viscosity
pcrMinimum pressure for turbulent flow
RecrCritical Reynolds number

The block positive direction is from port A to port B. This means that the flow rate is positive if it flows from A to B, and the pressure differential is determined as .

Basic Assumptions and Limitations

  • Fluid inertia is not taken into account.

Dialog Box and Parameters

Orifice area

Orifice passage area. The default value is 1e-4 m^2.

Flow discharge coefficient

Semi-empirical parameter for orifice capacity characterization. Its value depends on the geometrical properties of the orifice, and usually is provided in textbooks or manufacturer data sheets. The default value is 0.7.

Critical Reynolds number

The maximum Reynolds number for laminar flow. The transition from laminar to turbulent regime is supposed to take place when the Reynolds number reaches this value. The value of the parameter depends on orifice geometrical profile, and the recommendations on the parameter value can be found in hydraulic textbooks. The default value is 12, which corresponds to a round orifice in thin material with sharp edges.

Global Parameters

Parameters determined by the type of working fluid:

  • Fluid density

  • Fluid kinematic viscosity

Use the Hydraulic Fluid block or the Custom Hydraulic Fluid block to specify the fluid properties.


The block has the following ports:


Hydraulic conserving port associated with the orifice inlet.


Hydraulic conserving port associated with the orifice outlet.

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